18 years old is the minimum age of employment for hazardous jobs, and 15 years old for non–hazardous jobs. However, a child below 15 years of age may be employed by guardians or parents in a non–hazardous job if the employment does not hinder with the child’s schooling or development.
Eligibility to equal compensation for work for work of equal value and to equal access to promotion and training opportunities are made available to male and female employees. Any form of discrimination against female employees is unlawful. Also, for an employer to require a condition of employment that a woman should stipulate expressly or implicitly that a female employee shall be dismissed upon marriage or should not get married at all is also considered unlawful.
A staff department of the Department of Labor and Employment – the Bureau of Working Conditions, has gathered a list of Basic rights of Philippine government employees are entitled to. This is to ensure the health and safety of all workers.
Equal work opportunities for all. The State shall promote full employment, protect labor, provide equal work opportunity regardless of race, creed or gender; and regulate relations between employees and employers.
Rights of Philippine Government Employees:
1. SECURITY OF TENURE
Security of tenure. No employee can be terminated from work except for an authorized or just cause, and only after due process. All employees shall be assured security of tenure.
Authorized cause means economic circumstances that are not the employee’s fault. Just cause means any wrongdoing committed by an employee
2. WORK DAYS AND WORK HOURS
Work days and work hours. If the work hours fall between 10:00 pm and 6:00 am, they are entitled to the night differential pay in addition to their pay for regular work hours. Wages must be paid for all hours worked and should they work over eight hours a day, they are entitled to overtime pay.
3. WEEKLY REST DAY
Weekly Rest–Day. It is to be scheduled by the employer the employee’s day off of 24 consecutive hours after six (6) days of work.
4. WAGE AND WAGE-RELATED BENEFITS
Wage and wage–related benefits. The amount paid to an employee in exchange for to the rendered to their employer is the wage which may be fixed for a given period.
5. PAYMENT OF WAGES
Payment of Wages. Wages should be paid directly to the employee in any form of money transaction, be it through a bank, legal tender or cash. This shall be given not less than once every two weeks or twice withing a month with intervals that does not exceed 16 days.
6. FEMALE EMPLOYEES
Female Employees. Women are not allowed from engaging in night work unless the work is permitted by the following rules:
industrial undertakings from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.,
commercial/non-industrial undertakings from 12 m.n. to 6 a.m.,
or agricultural takings at night provided that she has had nine consecutive hours of rest.
Separate dressing rooms, lavatories and other welfare facilities, must be installed at the workplace.
7. EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN
Employment of Children. 15 years old is the minimum employment age. Any worker below 15 should be directly under the sole responsibility of guardians or parents given that the work doesn’t hinder with the child’s schooling or development.
18 years old is the minimum age of employment for hazardous jobs, and 15 years old for non–hazardous jobs
8. SAFE WORKING CONDITIONS
Safe Working Conditions. Every kind of on-the-job protection against sickness, injury or death must be provided by the employers to the employees through safe and healthful working conditions.
9. RIGHTS TO SELF-ORGANIZATION AND COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
Rights to Self-Organization and Bargaining. All employees have the right to self-organization, i.e., to join or to form any legitimate workers’ union, free from interference of the government or their employer. All employees may join the said union for collective bargaining and is entitled for union membership on the first day of their employment.
Collective bargaining is a procedure between two parties: Employer and Union. Where the terms and conditions of employment are agreed upon and fixed. In this procedure, the two parties also decide upon a process for resolving grievances. Collective bargaining results in a contract – Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA).